Figure 3.5 Causes of under-five mortality, 2017
CHAPTER 3 MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH
Source: National Health Commission, Report on China’s National Maternal and Child Health Information, 2018
The distribution of the causes of under-five mortality varies among different age groups of children. Aligned with the WHO classification of causes of death in Global Burden of Disease, the leading causes of neonatal death are preterm birth (32.2 per cent), intrapartum-related complications (20.6 per cent) and congenital abnormalities (18.5 per cent). The leading causes of infant (1–11 months old) death are chronic diseases (39.5 percent, including congenital abnormalities and other chronic diseases), infectious diseases (36.4 per cent, including pneumonia, diarrhea and other infectious diseases) and unintentional injuries (16.3 per cent). Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death for children between 1 and 4 years old (51.8 per cent), with chronic diseases and infectious diseases responsible for 27.9 per cent and 17.9 per cent, respectively. Increased efforts to prevent and manage premature and low birth weight infants will contribute to reducing under-five mortality, along with efforts to improve management of labour and neonatal resuscitation, prevent birth defects, improve treatment of common childhood infectious illnesses such as pneumonia and diarrhoea, and prevent child injury.