Figure 7.1 Drinking water facility and service level
CHAPTER 7 WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE
Sources: WHO/UNICEF, Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene, https://washdata.org/; UNICEF, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys 6 (MICS6) questionnaire, http://mics.unicef.org/
The WHO/UNICEF JMP has produced regular estimates of national, regional and global progress on WASH since 1990. In the MDG period, indicators measuring ‘use of improved facilities’ were used to track progress of drinking water across countries. Drinking water sources are classified into two hierarchical levels based on technology as shown in the table on the right. Improved drinking water sources are those which by nature of their design and construction have the potential to protect the water source from outside contamination. Starting from 2015 with the adoption of the SDGs, the population using improved drinking water sources is subdivided into three groups according to the level of service provided: safely managed, basic and limited services, which form the JMP service ‘ladders’ shown in the table on the left to enable benchmarking and comparison of progress across countries and facilitate enhanced monitoring and promoting drinking water services.